By LINDA WILSON-PAUWELS, PATRICIA A. STEWART, ELIZABETH J. AKESSON
Authored by way of an identical crew that created Cranial Nerves, this booklet presents an easy-to-follow assessment of autonomic nerves. the 1st half describes their constitution and serve as. the second one half addresses autonomic keep watch over of person organ platforms in a problem-based studying layout. all through, Autonomic Nerves describes afferent pathways, integrating constructions and mechanisms, efferent pathways, and the autonomic effectors. rules of autonomic neurotransmission also are mentioned.
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Molecules in inhaled air bind with receptors on t h e olfactory epithelial cells in t h e a p e x of t h e nose. Olfactory epithelial cells, in turn, stimulate t h e cells of t h e olfactory nerve (CN I ) , which project to t h e olfactory regions of t h e brain ( t h e pyriform a r e a in t h e temporal lobe a n d insula a n d t h e medial olfactory area in t h e subcallosal region of t h e medial surface of t h e frontal lobe) for conscious appreciation a n d interpretation. From t h e olfactory areas, signals are s e n t by, as yet, unknown pathways to t h e brain s t e m to elicit t h e autonomic responses of salivation in t h e mouth via t h e salivatory nuclei a n d motility a n d secretion within t h e gut via t h e dorsal vagal nucleus.
3-4). 35 36 Autonomic Nerves Figure 3-4 Visceral sensory pathways project t o the brain stem and to the thoracic and sacral regions of the spinal cord. Autonomic Sensory Components Sensory Neurons that do not Project to the Central Nervous System Intestinofugal (fleeing t h e intestine) neurons a r e a group of sensory enteric neurons, t h e cell bodies of which r e s i d e in t h e myenteric plexus a n d t h e axons of which project to t h e prevertebral ganglia where t h e y s y n a p s e o n sympathetic motor neurons.
4-5). The central division forms t h e main efferent pathways from t h e amygdala to t h e hypothalamus a n d t h e autonomic centers in t h e brain s t e m , such as t h e midbrain periaqueductal gray region, t h e dorsal vagal nucleus, a n d t h e respiratory a n d cardiovascular centers. Efferent axons reach t h e hypothalamus via t h e ventral amygdalofugal tract o r t h e stria terminalis (see Figs. 4-5 a n d 4-6). Once in t h e forebrain or diencephalon, many of t h e s e axons d e s c e n d through t h e brain s t e m in t h e medial forebrain b u n d l e or t h e dorsal longitudinal fasciculus.