By Donald R. Murphy
This clinically orientated textual content provide you with a complete reference of cervical backbone functionality, disorder, scientific syndromes, assessment and administration. You get instructions on tips on how to procedure particular medical syndromes concerning the cervical backbone from the point of view of indicators and syndromes, differential prognosis, therapy, rehabilitation, referral and residential care.
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The third part is superior to the atlas trans verse process, and the fourth is within the neural canal and posterior cranial fossa. Within transverse processes from C6 to C2, the sec ond part of the artery crosses immediately anterior to spinal nerves. It is accompanied by vertebral veins; one, two, or none of the veins may be large enough to be demonstrated easily in anatomical dissection. The nerve plexus ( formed by one or more branches of the stellate sympathetic ganglion) is large. In the upper cervical spine and within the skull, the vertebral artery has four curves.
Functional Anatomy of the Cervical Spine between atlas and axis, and portions of the ligament fan deep to the semispinalis capitis muscle to form lateral at tachments on the superior nuchal lines. The dural attach ment may assist in preventing inward buckling of the dura mater during head and neck extension. Mitchell and col leaguesl8 suggest that the lateral fibers may guide or limit rotation of the head. I? Since a large, elastic ligament provides torque to extend the head and neck, animals with well-developed nuchal ligaments are able to utilize cervical postures that minimize muscular ef fort by balancing ligament tension against gravity.
Chronic neck pain, standing balance, and suboccipital muscle atrophy-a pilot study. ] Manipulative Physiol Ther 1 997; 20: 24-29. 34. Hack GD, Koritzer RT, Robinson WL, Hallgren RC, Greenman PE. Anatomic relation between the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and dura mater. Spine 1 99 5 ; 20: 2484-2486. 3 5 . Penning L. Normal movements of the cervical spine. Am ] RoentgenoI 1 97 8 ; 1 30:3 1 7-326. 36. Lysell E. Motion in the cervical spine: An experimental study on autopsy specimens. Acta Orthop Scand SUfJIJl 1 969; 1 23 : 5-6 1 .