By Mark Bray

The objective of double-shift education is to increase entry and reduce unit bills. although, in view that a few platforms merely in attaining these objectives on the fee of academic caliber, coverage makers are confronted with tough offerings whilst designing platforms. Drawing on studies in a variety of nations, this publication highlights the benefits and difficulties of double-shift platforms. comparability is made with single-shift structures, and in addition with structures having triple or maybe quadruple shifts. The publication is meant for either nationwide and local coverage makers and headteachers and others chargeable for working double-shift faculties. this can be the 3rd version of a e-book first released in 1989 and up-to-date in 2000. completely revised and up-to-date, it keeps all of the virtues of its predecessors.

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On the question of feasibility, the policy-makers would also have to check resource availability for large-scale implementation. If they foresaw diminishing returns and/or feasibility constraints, they might decide on a different option or on a combination of strategies. Most important of all, the policy-makers would have to check both that their original estimates of cost and effectiveness were reasonably accurate, and that the future would not bring major changes. A change in costs, for example, could radically change the conclusions about the most desirable investment strategy.

The research in Chile cited above indicated that teachers in schools which were converted from a half-day to a full-day system did not always use the extra time productively. Similarly, the research in Brazil by Herrán and Rodríguez (2000: 39) noted that schools in different shifts had comparable academic outcomes despite differences in official allocations of time. They observed that increasing time-on-task within the classroom appears to increase learning achievement, but “merely increasing the hours of schooling does not necessarily have the same effect”.

Cost-effectiveness analysis: a simple example The nature of cost-effectiveness analysis may best be explained through a simple example (see Levin, 1983: 19-29; also Levin and McEwan, 2001 and 2004). This one is concerned with achievement. Educational administrators want to raise the mathematics scores of a group of pupils. The example is fictitious, but illustrates the basic principles. In this example, the administrators assess cost-effectiveness in six steps. Step 1: Identify alternative ways to achieve the goal Suppose that the administrators identify four alternatives: • • • • split mathematics classes in half, so that pupils gain more individual attention; introduce computers on which students can practise problem-solving; provide a special in-service training course for teachers; and prepare new and better textbooks.

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