By Bogdan Ovidiu Varga, Calin Iclodean, Florin Mariasiu
This e-book presents a scientific evaluation of the functionality of electrical and hybrid buses in city parts every day and provides a whole set of technical situations to advertise their effective exploitation. it is going to additionally support readers know the way destiny buses will practice on particular roads and the way the newest applied sciences will be built-in into current fleets via offering a strategy for comparing the power intake for common and particular routes and situations.
Covering all features on the subject of the day-by-day use of electrical and hybrid buses, together with upkeep concepts, energy teach configuration, battery replacements, direction assessment, and charging velocity, emphasis is put on power potency and potent implementation. Addressing key advancements in clever motor vehicle applied sciences, the e-book provides cutting edge transportation applied sciences and a wide diversity of themes in transportation-related sustainability study, from automobile platforms and layout, to mass transit systems.
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Additional resources for Electric and Hybrid Buses for Urban Transport: Energy Efficiency Strategies
The switch voltage determines the actual used characteristic : UL;switch sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b b2 À 4 Á a Á c þ ðVÞ ¼À 2Áa 2Áa ð3:63Þ where the values of system parameter a, b and c are given using the following calculation relations: a ¼ ÀRG;equ ðÀÞ b ¼ À2 Á sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ! 2 IL;max;act UL;max;cont ÀUL;max;act þ þ ðÀ Þ RG;equ CL;cont ð3:64Þ ð3:65Þ ð3:66Þ For the torque calculation, the loss moment and the working moment have to be added. The loss moment ML,pd,act is interpolated out of the loss function.
The longitudinal tire force (circumferential force) results from the friction coefﬁcient, the wheel load as well as from the wheel load factor and the slip factor. It is possible to deﬁne variable friction coefﬁcients along the driving proﬁle when different road conditions are considered . 1 Mathematical Modeling of the Conﬁguration Used in the Simulation Process 45 The wheel component also includes a detailed rolling resistance. This model describes the rolling resistance of the tire depending on the tire inflation pressure, load, translation speed, the ambient temperature and the time .
The Clutch contains a model for a friction clutch as it is used in cars with manual gearboxes. In this case the clutch is controlled by the driver via the cockpit . For the transmission of maximum torque from the clutch to be without slip during the entire duration of functioning, it is necessary for the clutch friction torque Ma to be greater than the maximum torque of the engine. 3 Equations of the Gearbox Element Gear transmissions featuring several ﬁxed ratios can maintain a correspondence between the respective performance curves for engine and vehicle.