By James H. Harlow

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Finally, overall efficiency can be calculated by multiplying the efficiencies of the individual stages. 6. Starting from the conversion of crude oil to fuel oil in the refinery, the ICEV process includes the transmission of fuel oil from refinery to gas stations, power conversion in the internal combustion engine of the vehicle, and power transfer from the engine to the wheels through the transmission before it is available at the wheels. 2. Representative numbers have been used for the energy conversion stages in each process to convey a general idea of the efficiencies of the two systems.

The emphasis of study in this book is on the broad design goals, such as finding the power and energy requirements and predicting the range for a given energy source, thereby maintaining a top-level perspective. The design details of a subsystem are beyond the scope of this book, and readers are referred to the literature of the respective areas for further details. 1 ROADWAY FUNDAMENTALS A vehicle moves on a level road and also up and down the slope of a roadway. We can simplify our description of the roadway by considering a straight roadway.

For all of the force calculations to follow, we will consider the vehicle to be a particle mass located at the cg of the vehicle. 3. Particle motion is described by particle velocity and acceleration characteristics. 3 Center of gravity (cg) of a vehicle. 4 Forces on a particle. 5 Rigid body rotation. The power input to the particle for the ith force is where is the angle between Fi and the resultant velocity v. For a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis, the equivalent terms relating motion and power are torque, angular velocity, and angular acceleration.

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