By Greg Banish
Takes engine-tuning recommendations to the following point. it's a must-have for tuners and calibrators and a precious source for someone who desires to make horsepower with a fuel-injected, electronically managed engine.
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Additional resources for Engine Management: Advanced Tuning
Colder inlet temperatures mean more timing advance can be used, resulting in more available horsepower. Conversely, much hotter inlet temperatures (often a result of supercharging) require reduced timing to avoid the knock that comes from the increased burn speed. The IAT sensor (arrow) should always be installed in a location that best represents the temperature of the air entering the cylinders. In the case of a supercharger, this means placing it after the compressor to measure any heat soak as seen on this turbo Toyota Supra engine.
As the piston moves down, pressure inside the cylinder drops below that of the intake tract and atmosphere. This pressure difference is what pushes the air and fuel into the chamber. Since we know that each ounce of fuel only carries so much energy and must be mixed with an appropriate amount of air to burn, the more total mix that can find its way in to the cylinder each time the valve opens, the more potential we have to make power. Obviously there are ways to increase or decrease the amount of charge filling the cylinder each time.
05) burn hotter with oxides of nitrogen forming as a direct result. For emissions, we target a stoichiometric mixture to leave as few byproducts either way. (Figure 2-3) Engineers often refer to the air/fuel ratio in terms of “Lambda” (λ). Lambda is defined as an excess air ratio. 00 exactly at stoichiometric mixture and increases as the air/fuel ratio gets leaner. Most OEM code is written in terms of lambda for fuel control. This gives the calibrator a quick percentage reference of their deviation from stoichiometric mixture.