By Contrada R., Baum A. (eds.)

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Personality and Individual Differences, 32(3), 567–573. Krantz, D. , Glass, D. , Contrada, R. , & Miller, N. E. (1981). Behavior and health. The National Science Foundation’s Five year outlook on science and technology: 1981 Source Materials (Vol. 2, pp. 561–588). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Krantz, D. , & Manuck, S. B. (1984). Acute psychophysiologic reactivity and risk of cardiovascular disease: A review and methodologic critique. Psychological Bulletin, 96(3), 435–464. Lazarus, R.

Moreover, CBG production is stimulated by estradiol, in part explaining the higher total plasma GC concentrations in female rats and pregnant women. GC are removed from the circulation primarily by forming reduced metabolites and by esterification in the liver. Thus their clearance is affected by changes in liver blood flow. When this is high, for example, during relaxation after meals, GC are cleared faster, and when it is low, as occurs when blood flow is shunted to the muscles during running, clearance is slower.

Greater attention to the independence of positive and negative psychological phenomena is also seen in the assessment of emotional responses that accompany stress, where, for example, there have been efforts to model the conditions under which these dimensions remain largely uncorrelated and define a two-dimensional space, and when they collapse into a single, bipolar dimension (Finan, Zautra, & Wershba, chapter 16). At a biological level, there appears to be an ever-growing array of structures and processes that are activated by stress.

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