By John H Lienhard
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In Chapter 6 we ﬁnd that h really is independent of ∆T in situations in which ﬂuid is forced past a body and ∆T is not too large. This is called forced convection. When ﬂuid buoys up from a hot body or down from a cold one, h varies as some weak power of ∆T —typically as ∆T 1/4 or ∆T 1/3 . This is called free or natural convection. If the body is hot enough to boil a liquid surrounding it, h will typically vary as ∆T 2 . For the moment, we restrict consideration to situations in which Newton’s law is either true or at least a reasonable approximation to real behavior.
But heat transfer processes that occur at high temperature, or with conduction or convection suppressed by evacuated insulations, usually involve a signiﬁcant fraction of radiation. 3 Open the freezer door to your refrigerator. Put your face near it, but stay far enough away to avoid the downwash of cooled air. This way you cannot be cooled by convection and, because the air between you and the freezer is a ﬁne insulator, you cannot be cooled by conduction. Still your face will feel cooler. The reason is that you radiate heat directly into the cold region and it radiates very little heat to you.
5 cm. The lower surface is maintained at 6◦ C and the top at 40◦ C. The other surface is insulated. Assume one-dimensional heat transfer and calculate the rate of heat transfer in watts from top to bottom. To do this, note that the heat transfer, Q, must be the same at every cross section. Write Fourier’s law locally, and integrate it from top to bottom to get a relation between this unknown Q and the known end temperatures. 11 A hot water heater contains 100 kg of water at 75◦ C in a 20◦ C room.