By James J. Hennesey

Written by way of one of many most advantageous historians of yankee Catholicism, this ebook offers a entire historical past of the Roman Catholic Church in the US from colonial instances to the current. Hennesey examines, specifically, minority Catholics and advancements within the western a part of the U.S., a quarter frequently missed in non secular histories.

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20 Serra himself founded nine missions before his death in 1784. They were the economic center of California life. Hundreds of thousands of cattle, sheep, and other farm animals roamed their acres, fields yielded wheat, corn, and barley, orchards blossomed with oranges, apples, pears, figs, and peaches. Olive trees were introduced. Vineyards produced grapes from which wine and brandy were made. A flourishing export trade developed. In 1773 the friars were given total authority over baptized Indians.

Was an important missionary among them. Capuchins ranged south from Acadia as far as Penobscot Bay. But from 1654 to 1670 Acadia was controlled by the English, and King William's War (168997) kept the frontier in constant turmoil. Competing European powers enlisted Indian support and paid bounties for scalps. Villages were destroyed on both sides, their inhabitants brutally killed. , who came there from the Illinois country in 1694 and spent thirty years with the Abenaki, a tribe that became completely Catholic.

The 1697 Treaty of Ryswick brought temporary peace, but France and England were at war again from 1702 to 1713 (Queen Anne's War), and in 1704 the Abenaki sacked Deerfield, Massachusetts, and massacred its population. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 increased the confusion, since it involved cession of Acadia to Britain but left boundaries in Maine unclear. If Acadia extended to the Kennebec, the Abenaki now became British subjects; if the boundary was at the Ste. Croix, they were French. Quebec's governor wrote Rale in 1720, urging him to mobilize Indian resistance.

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