By J.J. Pocha

` The booklet is a good written and is acceptable for a wide variety of readers from scholars to managers drawn to studying in regards to the project layout challenge and research recommendations for the geo-synchronous orbit. '
Canadian Aeronautics and house magazine, March 1988

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Some constraints that could arise are, the size, and size variation of the apogee motor, the station acquisition strategy, the apogee motor firing strategy, and the launch window. Various numerical methods may be employed in the optimisation. Since the number of variables is small, the optimisation task is not a difficult one. The Optimisation Procedure for MARECS As an illustrative example, we shall consider the transfer orbit optimisation for ESA's MARECS spacecraft launched by Ariane. The MARECS spacecraft drifts freely in latitude while being maintained within strict longitude limits.

The orientation of the orbit plane is defined by the position of the orbit normal, known as the orbit pole. Owing to the effects of Luni-Solar perturbations, the orbit pole tends to drift towards the Vernal Equinox for small inclinations. 2. Now if a spacecraft wishes to avoid North-South station-keeping manoeuvres, and still wishes to minimise its orbit inclination over its operational lifetime, it is clear that the orbit pole must initially be placed on the side of the North Pole, remote from the Vernal Equinox.

Owing to the rotation of the Earth, the Earth-fixed transfer orbit ascending node and the inertially-fixed on-station orbit ascending node will coincide once every 24 hours. -",-,,- ~ 11.. r",mJaR. I. 7 Launch Window Due to Solar Aspect Angle and Eclipse Constraints i I -I i --~~ ! So\ft<. )

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