By Eva L. Feldman
The atlas is a accomplished define of neuromuscular illnesses, written by way of skilled American and ecu authors. It discusses all elements of neuromuscular issues together with the cranial nerves, spinal nerves, motor neurone disorder, the nerve plexus, peripheral nerves, mononeuropathies, entrapment syndromes, polyneuropathies, the neuromuscular junction, and muscle ailment. every one bankruptcy is uniformly dependent into anatomy, indicators, indicators, pathogentic chances, analysis and differential analysis, treatment and diagnosis. also the diagnostic instruments and investigations utilized in neuromuscular sickness are defined and a pragmatic consultant is given tips on how to increase from indicators to syndromes. for every illness the healing recommendations are defined. It includes huge variety of scientific and histologic images from the sensible adventure of the authors and likewise a couple of artists drawings to facilitate the certainty of anatomic structures.
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Clivus and plica petroclinoidea: In herniation. Cavernous sinus: Associated with other CN involvement (IV, V, VI). The pupil can be spared. “Pseudopupillary sparing” means that pupillary involvement by an oculomotor nerve lesion is masked by a concomitant Horner’s syndrome. Extracranial pathway/orbit: Superior division (levator and superior rectus). Inferior division (inferior oblique, inferior rectus, medial rectus, pupillary muscle). Orbital lesion: Often associated with proptosis and optic nerve dysfunction.
Development: Paralysis progresses from 3–72 hours. About half of the patients have pain (mastoid, ear). Some (30%) have excess tearing. Other symptoms include dysgeusia. Facial weakness is complete in 70% of cases. Stapedius dysfunction occurs in 30% of cases. Mild lacrimation and taste problems are rare. Some patients complain of ill-defined sensory symptoms in the trigeminal distribution. Improvement occurs in 4–6 weeks, for about 80% (see Fig. 11). 59 Symptoms may persist and contractures or synkineses may develop.
50 Inflammatory, immune mediated: Sensory trigeminal neuropathy subacute sensory neuropathy, sensory trigeminal neuropathy (connective tissue disease), Sjögren is syndrome, scleroderma, SLE, progressive sclerosis, mixed connective tissue disease. Characterized by abrupt onset, usually affecting one or two branches unilaterally, numbness (may disturb motor coordination of speech), and pain. “Numb chin syndrome”or mental neuropathy has been described as an idiopathic neuropathy or resulting from mandibular metastasis.