By H W Harrison, R C de Vekey

This 3rd publication within the BRE development components sequence considers the most vertical components of constructions, either exterior (including partitions, home windows and doorways) and inner (including keeping apart partitions, walls and inner doors). It bargains in define with the functionality standards of the areas from which the necessary performances of the partitions are derived, and likewise, in precept, with the completed performances and deficiencies of the cloth over the total age diversity of the nationwide development inventory. This e-book is addressed basically to development surveyors and different pros appearing related services, similar to architects and developers, who preserve, fix, expand and renew the nationwide construction inventory. it's going to additionally locate program within the schooling box, the place academics can locate indication of the place the development syllabus wishes recognition. statistics are given of BRE Advisory provider investigations of partitions via form of disorder and through kind of development.

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Often there is a need to know when a material is ‘dry’, although in absolute terms a porous material in a building will nearly always retain some moisture, either from natural hygroscopicity or from the effects of hygroscopic salts contained in the material. A brief description of the most commonly available methods of determining moisture content follows. Other methods are available, but are used mainly in laboratory and specialised situations. Commercial electrical resistance meters BRE site investigations have revealed many instances in which systems intended to combat rising damp have been installed in buildings where rising damp is not occurring.

Often not easy when the pitch of the roof differs from the rake of the bond 1 The basic functions of the vertical elements When a building suffering from rising damp has no dampproof course or it has been established beyond doubt that the existing dampproof course has failed, it is necessary to provide some kind of barrier to the rising damp. The most surely effective method is to insert a physical membrane; if possible this should be done despite the slightly higher cost and possible greater inconvenience compared with the use of nontraditional methods.

On the other hand, if an existing tree is removed, the moisture will return slowly to the ground causing it to swell. In some clay soils this rehydration can take 20 to 30 years. The magnitude of the movements associated with a new tree growing or an existing tree being removed depends mainly on the type and size of the tree, the shrinkage potential of the soil, and the prevailing climate. The recommended minimum distances which trees should be allowed to grow near buildings if the effects of root systems are to be minimised, and unless special precautions have been taken with foundation design in shrinkable clays, can be summarised as follows.

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