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20): )( )( )( ) ( ) ( 1 d 1 0 1 d A B 1 0 = 0 1 −1∕f1 1 0 1 C D −1∕f2 1 ( )( ) 1 d 1 d = . −1∕f2 1 − d∕f2 −1∕f1 1 − d∕f1 Now for n-fold application, the individual element will cause total transformation ( ) ( )n An Bn A B . 27) this matrix can be evaluated algebraically. Thus one calculates ( )n ( ) A B A sin nΘ − sin (n − 1)Θ B sin nΘ 1 = . C D C sin nΘ D sin nΘ − sin (n − 1)Θ sin Θ The angle Θ must remain real to avoid the matrix coefficients increasing to infinity. Otherwise the light ray would actually leave the lens system.

Materials with {????r , ????r } > 0 are naturally prevailing and also called right-handed materials (rhms): Eq. , [9]). 4 Static fields of charge distributions are called longitudinal. 37 38 2 Wave Optics set for ????r > 0. For both {????r , ????r } < 0, the arrangement is changed to a left-handed triad. 3). Metamaterials exhibit exotic properties such as negative refractive indices. The infinite planar wave fulfills all Maxwell’s equations, especially ???? ⋅E = 0, and has perfectly transverse field components.

The theory of relativity epitomizes an outstanding intersection point of classical and modern physics. Owing to the theory, it is necessary that the equations of mechanical motion are modified for very high velocities. From the very start, Maxwell’s equations, describing the propagation of light, have been consistent with the theory of relativity. This property is called “relativistic invariance”. 1 from the ray optical point of view by means of the index of refraction n. According to Eq. 12), the value for the phase velocity is now modified to c2 → c2 ∕????r ????r= c2 ∕n2 .

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