By W. R. Ward
This booklet bargains a quick, yet accomplished, account of spiritual trust and adventure in Europe among the Westphalia settlements in 1648 and the French Revolution. The publication is equipped round huge ecu areas reminiscent of imperative and Northwestern Europe (including Britain), Southern Europe and North and japanese Europe. inside of each one bankruptcy Professor Ward discusses the church buildings of their political, social and highbrow context. With its maps, thesaurus and consultant to additional analyzing, this delivers to be a massive reduction to scholars of Christianity below the ancien r?gime.
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Extra resources for Christianity under the Ancien Régime, 1648-1789 (New Approaches to European History)
When she died in 1680 he settled in Amsterdam, and when his own wife died in 1688 he removed to a small settlement of separatist Collegiants at Rijnsburg near Leiden, where he lived till his own death in 1719. This period was not, however, one of withdrawal. He published the works of Antoinette Bourignon in nineteen volumes, and wrote very successfully on a variety of subjects including the education of children. But he also developed his interest in Jakob Bo¨hme, and above all in the French mystics.
Freed from the worst pressure, these irreconcilables found various routes into English society, some under the aegis of the church, others through the (mainly Anglican) religious societies, others as French Reformed. It is interesting that many were picked up by Wesley in his original stamping ground of the old East End of London; just as at a later date many of the next wave of Reformed refugees, the Palatines, were picked up by him in their settlements in Southern Ireland. In both cases great diVerences of confessional and theological tradition were readily overcome by the congenial ethos of a movement which was native but not hidebound.
The king got the bishops to publish the Four Articles justifying his exercise of authority over the church and incorporated them into the theological teaching of the church in 1682. There were certainly many in the country who did not accept the articles, and all the more after Innocent XI had issued a scathing brief castigating the French bishops for their cowardice in surrendering the rights of the church, and began to block appointments to French bishoprics. Jansenism 29 Innocent was equally unimpressed by Louis’s claim to have extirpated Protestantism, and by press campaigns accusing him of favouring heretics in the shape of Quietists and Jansenists (though he had certainly considered making Arnauld a cardinal in 1680).