By Thomas Böllinghaus, John Lippold, Carl Edward Cross

This is the fourth quantity within the well-established sequence of compendiums dedicated to the topic of weld sizzling cracking. It includes the papers offered on the 4th foreign Cracking Workshop held in Berlin in April 2014. within the context of this workshop, the time period “cracking” refers to sizzling cracking within the classical and former experience, but in addition to chilly cracking, stress-corrosion cracking and increased temp. solid-state cracking. various varied cracking topics are mentioned, together with try criteria, crack prediction, weldability decision, crack mitigation, tension states, numerical modelling, and cracking mechanisms. Likewise, many various alloys have been investigated similar to aluminum alloys, copper-aluminum diverse steel, austenitic chrome steel, nickel base alloys, duplex chrome steel, creep resistant metal, and excessive energy steel.

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E ¼ t=2R ð1Þ Improved Understanding of Varestraint Testing … 31 Without tack- welded support plates 3 Plate 5mm R133 Top Plate 5mm R133 Bottom Measured Strain [%] 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 -1 -2 -3 Time [s] Fig. 6 Example of strain measurement in pure bending with a target strain of *2 % using a test plate thickness of 5 mm and radius of 133 mm (R133) with support plates lying free on top of the test plate. The solid line reveals measurements from the top side of the test plate, whereas the dotted line represents measurements from the bottom side of the same test plate where t = thickness of the plate (mm) R = the size of the radius die mandrel (mm) It is clearly revealed that the upper half of the plate thickness is in tension (about 2 %) whereas the lower half is exposed to compressive strains (about −2 %) in bending.

54 N. E. Cross Brittle Temperature Range The BTR is less than the solidification range, bounded by the coherent and non-equilibrium solidus temperatures. The coherent temperature represents the beginning of dendrite interlocking, providing resistance to mechanical shear and liquid back-feeding. It follows that cracking is not found at temperatures above coherency, because of the ease of liquid back-filling and absence of any stress. An alloy’s coherent temperature is not something that can typically be found documented in handbooks, but it can be measured experimentally using either thermal recalescence or casting stir-torque techniques [82].

References 1. “A new Approach to the Study of Hot Cracking in Fusion Welds”, Carl D. Lundin, PhD. Dissertation, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Materials Science and Engineering, July 1966. 2. “The Varestraint Test,” Welding Journal, 44 (10), 1965, pp. 433s-442s, Carl D. Lundin and W. F. Savage 3. “Application of the Varestraint Technique to the Study of Weldability”, Welding Journal, 45 (11), 1966, pp. 497s-503s, Carl D. Lundin and W. F. Savage. 4. “Weldability of Nuclear Grade Stainless Steels,” A Group Sponsored Program, Welding Research Council Bulletin # 509, February 2006, Carl D.

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