By Mirjam Künkler, Alfred Stepan

Indonesia's army executive collapsed in 1998, igniting fears that financial, spiritual, and political conflicts could complicate any democratic transition. but in each year on account that 2006, the world's so much populous Muslim kingdom has obtained excessive marks from overseas democracy-ranking enterprises. during this quantity, political scientists, spiritual students, criminal theorists, and anthropologists learn the idea and perform of Indonesia's democratic transition and its skill to function a version for different Muslim nations. They examine the Indonesian instance with comparable eventualities in Chile, Spain, India, and Tunisia, in addition to with the failed transitions of Yugoslavia, Egypt, and Iran. Essays discover the connection among faith and politics and the ways that Muslims grew to become supportive of democracy even prior to switch happened, they usually describe how leading edge guidelines avoided dissident army teams, violent spiritual activists, and secessionists from disrupting Indonesia's democratic evolution. the gathering concludes with a dialogue of Indonesia's rising "legal pluralism" and of which of its types are rights-eroding and rights-protecting.

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12 Indonesia has the two largest member-based Islamic civil society organizations in the world, both of which have taken strong positions against Indonesia as an Islamic state and the establishment of sharia as the only source of law. Both also were strongly supportive of the democratic transition in 1998. One association, Nahdlatul Ulama (NU, Rise of the Ulama) has an estimated 35 to 40 million followers, drawn from a largely tolerant, rural religious tradition built upon Islam, with some additions from animism, Buddhism, and Sufism.

Bowen 9. Unfinished Business: Law Reform, Governance, and the Courts in Post-Suharto Indonesia Tim Lindsey and Simon Butt GLOSSARY NOTES SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTRIBUTORS INDEX ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are thankful to the Institute for Religion, Culture, and Public Life and the Center for the Study of Democracy, Toleration, and Religion at Columbia University as well as to the Henry R. Luce Initiative on Religion and International Affairs for funding research and conferences on democracy in Muslim majority countries such as Indonesia.

John Bowen discusses in his chapter what the growing use of sharia law means and does not mean for Indonesia. As Bowen shows, pro-Islamic legislation and regulations narrow some personal freedoms. In about 10 percent of Indonesia’s 495 regions, sharia-based laws have been introduced, some of which contradict national law. For example, some of the regional laws, as in South Sulawesi, require both male and female civil servants to wear Islamic dress and to be able to recite key passages of the Qurʾan as a qualification to hold public employment; some municipalities oblige Muslim couples to recite from memory the first seven lines of the Qurʾan before a marriage ceremony; and some local bodies impose a special Muslim tax, zakat, and keep the additional revenues for their own purposes.

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