By Robert A Scalapino

III. the preferred foundation OF EARLY jap PARTIES
IV. the character OF EARLY get together association AND TACTICS
V. THE EVOLUTION OF POLITICAL events IN eastern INSTITUTIONAL constitution AND idea, 1890-1913
VI. THE EVOLUTION OF POLITICAL events IN eastern INSTITUTIONAL constitution AND conception, 1913-1932
VII. the advance OF jap CAPITALISM AND ITS impression at the get together MOVEMENT
X. the matter OF eastern DEMOCRACY

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We have already noted the role that isolation played in making this develo� ment as deep and lasting as it was. The Western impact, however, was sufficient to 36 separate sonno from joi in the minds of some of the more enlight­ ened bushi elements, as a disintegrating economy and open foreign assault dinned into them the impossibility of a return to the old order. The good judgment of those Tokugawa pioneers who had in some measure foreseen this fact was being demonstrated. The release of sonno from joi and its fixation to kaikoku ( Open the country ) symbolized the final nature of the Meiji Restoration and forecast the whole character of the new era.

Moreover, some of the merchant capitalists had invested their surplus capital in land and had thus assumed an additional role of landowner under the old order. It should also be r�membered that in the closing half-century or so of the Tokugawa era many of the merchant class had bought or married their way into samurai status. See E. H. Norman, Japan's Emergence as a Modern State, New York, 1 940, pp. 49-62. All these factors militated against the possibility of an immediate "bour­ geois revolution"; and in the aftermath of the Restoration it became clear that the Tokugawa merchants as a class lacked both the desire and the re­ sou rces to transform Japan into a modern industrial capitalist state.

Before such action was taken, the ex­ cessive introduction of silver dollars and the heavy exportation of such items as raw silk, tea, and silk paper created currency unbalance and great price inflation. The inflation in rice prices was also very severl For some statistics 30 ment of power in which the landed aristocracy would remain dominant, with the feudal system strengthened by a greatly cen­ tralized administrative structure and made secure by the perpetu­ ation of isolation. It was the inability of the Tokugawa shogunate to maintain its original lines which produced most of the early opposition it had to face.

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