By Jan Zielonka, Alex Pravda
This moment quantity in a chain of books on democratic consolidation in jap Europe analyzes the exterior parameters of this kind of consolidation in 13 japanese ecu international locations. It explores how diversified foreign actors and numerous monetary, cultural, and defense sorts of transnational pressures have formed democratic politics within the sector, specially over the past decade.
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Additional resources for Democratic Consolidation in Eastern Europe: Volume 2: International and Transnational Factors (Oxford Studies in Democratization)
Economic Issues The economy is a highly internationalized area which has a pervasive, if largely indirect, bearing on democratic consolidation. The high degree of internationalization ﬂows from the failure of the native command systems, the West's active promotion of market capitalism, and the strength of globalization. Because the bankruptcy of the command economy was so evident by the end of the communist regimes, nearly all members of the East European political elite looked for new formulas to achieve growth and build their own power.
From 1988, the European Community (EC) set conditions for the conclusion of trade and cooperation agreements with the East European states. These were not explicitly declared, but if a country contravened CSCE human rights provisions or did not make progress with political reforms, the EC withheld the prospect of an agreement. For example, trade and cooperation agreements with Bulgaria and Romania were held up in 1989 and 1990 over concerns about their treatment of minorities. Explicit and stricter conditions were set for second-generation association (‘Europe’) agreements.
The Promotion of Democracy 33 The new East European regimes themselves declared that their ﬁrst foreign policy priority was to ‘rejoin Europe’, meaning those organizations that seemed to have ensured security, democracy, and prosperity in Western Europe: the EU and NATO. Western states cannot escape from the fact that these organizations have become the focus of East European foreign policies; this has necessarily overshadowed their bilateral relations with the countries of the region. The ﬁrst section of this chapter analyses the West's objectives with respect to Eastern Europe.