By Ergun Özbudun
Explores and illustrates how family and foreign elements form the path of democratization approach with exact connection with the structure making procedure within the Turkish context.
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Finally, the draft Article 3 amended the second paragraph of Article 155 of the Constitution on the Council of State’s competence in reviewing concession contracts. ” The opposition deputies also argued that these changes would encourage the spoils system and arbitrary concessions and contracts by the government. However, the Committee adopted the government sponsored proposal without change. 9 Article 1 was adopted by a vote of 416 to 22 without any debate. ” Then Article 2 was adopted by the votes of 405 versus 22.
Similarly, if a political party is outlawed by the Constitutional Court because of its anticonstitutional activities, only those members of parliament who caused such a decision by their own words or deeds would lose their membership; the status of other party deputies would remain unaffected. The 1995 amendment also redefined and somewhat limited the grounds for the prohibition of parties. Thus, the amended paragraph four of Article 68 reads as follows: The status and programs, as well as the activities of political parties shall not be in conflict with the independence of the State, its indivisible integrity with its territory and nation, human rights, the principles of equality and the rule of law, sovereignty of the nation, the principles of democratic and secular Republic; they shall not aim to support or to establish a dictatorship of class or group or a dictatorship of any kind; they shall not encourage the commitment of a criminal offense.
10 The Unsuccessful Attempt to Amend Presidential Elections A change in the procedure governing the presidential elections had been on the political agenda since Süleyman Demirel was elected to the office following the death of Özal in 1993. 11 In fact, Özal, the ex-president, had also advocated the popular election of the president. The consultation process between political leaders on the presidential election started as early as January 2000. There seemed to be a consensus on changing the current seven year term to a five year term of office and allowing a president to serve two terms instead of the current single term.