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Atal, and Joanne L. ) 1991. Papers in Speech Communication: speech production. Woodbury, New York: Acoustical Society of America. Ladefoged, Peter. 1962. Elements of acoustic phonetics. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2nd edition, 1996. Lehiste, Ilse. 1970. Suprasegmentals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Lieberman, Philip, and Sheila E. Blumstein. 1988. Speech physiology, speech perception, and acoustic phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Stevens, Kenneth N. 1998. Acoustic phonetics.

Fourier’s theorem enables us to describe speech sounds in terms of the frequency and amplitude of each of its constituent simple waves. Such a description is known as the spectrum of a sound. A spectrum is visually displayed as a plot of frequency vs. amplitude, with frequency represented from low to high along the horizontal axis and amplitude from low to high along the vertical axis. The usual energy source for speech is the airstream generated by the lungs. This steady flow of air is converted into brief puffs of air by the vibrating vocal folds, two muscular folds housed in the larynx.

These factors affect second language learning in ways that are mostly independent of the learner. For example, a learner can do nothing about his or her age, or language aptitude. Few learners may have the opportunity to switch from one educational setting to another. Given the appropriate guidance, however, some learners may be able to improve their motivation and learning strategies over time. For example, ‘extrinsic motivation’, which derives from external rewards, may evolve into ‘intrinsic motivation’, which derives from personal interests.

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