By James R. Millar

Это первая энциклопедия на английском языке, посвященная Российской истории. Она включает 1500 статей, написанных 500 учеными из sixteen стран. Однако подавляющее большинство авторов преподаватели университетов США. Статьи специально подготавливались так, чтобы они входили в контекст общей истории России. Статьи, как правило, довольно крупные и достаточно подробные. four тома сведены в один файл с общим оглавлением - удобно.

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1845) that any substance, when placed in a magnetic field, will rotate the plane of polarized light. Indeed, it was the Faraday effect that was used to establish the electromagnetic nature of light. A general schematic of an MCD instrument is presented in Figure 1. In the case of degenerate electronic transitions, for which the components are not resolved in the absorption spectrum, one has access to only limited structural information. However, in the presence of a magnetic field, these degeneracies are lifted (Zeeman effect) and now can be explored in more detail.

MAGNETIC CIRCULAR DICHROISM, THEORY 1217 Magnetic Circular Dichroism, Theory Laura A Andersson, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA ELECTRONIC SPECTROSCOPY Theory Copyright © 1999 Academic Press Introduction and overview Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy is a type of electronic spectroscopy, also called the Faraday effect or the Zeeman effect, that can be a particularly useful and effective method for structural analysis. For example, MCD can be used to assign the transitions in the electronic absorption spectrum (UV-visible), with respect to details such as the molecular orbital origins of the transitions.

This considerably simplifies the NOESY spectrum at any particular Xfrequency and is particularly useful for studying large complexes where there is extensive signal overlap in the normal NOESY spectra. Complexes formed using less tightly bound ligands (Ka < 106 M−1) can sometimes have spectra showing separate signals for bound and free species in slow exchange that are exchanging sufficiently rapidly to allow their signals to be connected using transfer of magnetization methods. Since the assignments for the free ligand are usually known, these methods give the assignments for the connected signals from the bound ligand.

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