By Carl Mitcham

The Encyclopedia of technological know-how, expertise, and Ethics has had a number of origins. It used to be while contributing an editorial at the philosophy of expertise to the pioneering first version of the Encyclopedia of Bioethics (1978), that i started to dream of a extra basic encyclopedic advent to problems with know-how and ethics. encouraged through the point of view of students as varied as Jacques Ellul and Hans Jonas, bioethics seemed simply a part of a entire have to grapple intellectually with the more and more technological global within which we are living. this concept used to be pursued in a state-of-the-field bankruptcy on ‘‘Philosophy of Technology’’ in A advisor to the tradition of technological know-how, know-how, and medication (1980) edited through one among my mentors, Paul T. Durbin. hence while Stephen G. submit, the editor of the 3rd variation of the Encyclopedia of Bioethics (2004), urged to Macmillan the assumption of a extra normal ‘‘Encyclopedia of Technoethics,’’ with me as capability editor, i used to be primed to be enthusiastic— even if I additionally argued that the sector may still now be improved to incorporate ethics in terms of either technological know-how and know-how.

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Hans Jonas and the Imperative of Responsibility While Kant and Ross argued specifically against consequentialist theories in explaining their respective deontological views, other theorists are motivated by concerns over consequences in ways that influence the content of duties. Such is the case with the imperative of responsibility put forward by Hans Jonas (1984). Jonas calls for a new formula of duty because he thinks that traditional ethical theories are not up to the task of protecting the human species in light of the power of modern technology.

Professional codes are tools to improve the profession; the end of right action, in this case, is dependent upon the good of the profession, and the content of duties will depend on the particular views of the authors concerning that good. Further Applications and Challenges Duty ethics have been applied with some success in technological fields where consequentialist or utilitarian reasoning seems inappropriate. In biomedical ethics there is general acceptance of the view that do-notresuscitate orders and living wills are to be respected, even when doing so means death for the patient and possibly great unhappiness for loved ones.

Scholarly coverage of the issue. DEHUMANIZATION SEE Humanization and Dehumanization. Ethical Issues The ethics of desertification reflects extremely diluted responsibilities. Since the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean Basin, for example, up to the present (such as in Spain), farmers have tried in numerous ways to eke out a hard living in arid lands. Some people would lay blame primarily on government planning agencies for overirrigation and groundwater depletion, salinization, and other impacts of population density and tourism in arid regions.

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