By G Boxer
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Extra resources for Engineering Thermodynamics: Theory, worked examples and problems
18 10 (i) 0. ) 9. Complete the following table of properties of water and steam. ) 10. 5 at 6 bar neglecting the liquid volume. 81 kJ/kg). 11. 26 bar, 83 °C. 88 kJ/kg). 5 SYSTEMS- MORE ADVANCED CALCULATIONS 1. 5 kg of water at a temperature of 130 °C and a pressure of 1 000 000 Pa is heated isobarically until the final temperature of 200 °C is reached. Calculate the heat transfer, the change of volume and the work transfer. It is now cooled isochorically to a final pressure of 200 000 Pa. Determine the heat transfer.
1 m2 contains 1 kg water at 15 °C, and a piston resting on the water exerts a constant pressure of 7 bar. An electric heater forms the bottom of the cylinder and heats the water at the rate of 500 W. Calculate the time taken for the piston to rise through a distance of 1 m. If the rate of heating is Qand the time taken is t . 4 . 5 kW mvfi (water at 15 °C page 10) Q 3 3 1 kg X 0 . 6 min 5. 52 dry is heated isochorically to 7 bar. 0 bar. For the above series of changes calculate (a) the state of the fluid after heating (b) the heat transfer during isochoric heating (c) the temperature of the steam after expansion.
It is imperative always to know in which area(s) of these fields the necessary calculations have to be made. For example, in the gas region the relationship pV = RT may be held to be reasonably valid, whereas in the liquid-vapour region recourse must be made to tables of properties such as the one quoted above since no characteristic equation between properties holds true. Two salient states should be noted and are designated f (for saturated liquid) and g (for saturated vapour) (see figure 4a,b) The tables also refer to values at the critical point c (for example see at the foot of page 8 Vc,hc,sc)· By definition h = e + pv and one of the first calculations demonstrates that the values of e and h listed in the tables are consistent with each other according to this relationship.