By Roger Daniels
"Once i presumed to jot down a heritage of the immigrants in the US. Then i found that the immigrants were American history," wrote historian Oscar Handlin. Immigrants and generations in their descendants have outlined the yank country from its starting and proceed to supply America's attribute variety, representing virtually each race, nationality, faith, and ethnic crew all over the world. a few immigrants got here to the hot international looking for financial achieve. Others have been introduced in chains. nonetheless others stumbled on shelter in the US from non secular or ethnic persecution.
This single-volume encyclopedia comprises greater than three hundred entries, masking a number of facets of immigration background and policy:
* ethnic teams, together with census and immigration statistics, significant sessions of immigration and parts of cost, essential faith, and ancient background
* key immigration laws, corresponding to the chinese language Exclusion Act, Immigration Act of 1990, and Refugee Act of 1980
* phrases and ideas, together with eco-friendly card, quota method, citizen, naturalization, photograph brides, and nativism
* different types of immigrants, together with refugees, indentured servants, teenagers, and exiles
* immigration stations: Angel Island, fortress backyard, and Ellis Island * non secular teams and church buildings, corresponding to Amish, Huguenots, Muslims, and japanese ceremony churches
* extra analyzing lists and cross-references stick to every one entry
An introductory essay offers a cogent evaluation of the complete scope of the booklet. greater than a hundred and fifty photos and illustrations supplement the entries. Statistical bins complement the articles with key info. a listing of immigration, ethnic, and refugee businesses; a consultant to extra learn that incorporates books, museums, and internet sites; and a close chronology finish this beneficial source for study in American heritage, ethnic and multicultural experiences, and genealogy.
Oxford's scholar partners to American heritage are cutting-edge references for college and residential, particularly designed and written for a while 12 via grownup. each one ebook is a concise yet entire A-to-Z advisor to a tremendous old interval or subject matter in U.S. background, with articles on key matters and fashionable members. The authors--distinguished students famous of their components of expertise--ensure that the entries are actual, up to date, and obtainable. particular good points comprise an introductory part on the best way to use the ebook, extra examining lists, cross-references, chronology, and entire index.
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Additional info for American Immigration: A Student Companion (Oxford Student Companions to American History)
The earliest immigrants in the late 19th century were almost exclusively young men, but large numbers of women and children soon followed. The major economic niche that the early Arab immigrants made for themselves was in peddling. As many as 90 percent of male immigrants before 1914 did some kind of peddling. As with many immigrant occupations, peddling was one that they developed in the United States, not in their homeland. Some were city peddlers who slept at home every night, while others criss-crossed the entire country on trips that lasted for weeks or even months.
One historian has examined Wisconsin, the most German of American states, and found that according to the state census of 1905, for example, the 2,319 family heads born in Austria were evenly divided between rural and urban residences, and lived in the same places as most other German-speakers. Within Austria the heaviest area of emigration was Burgenland, a poor province south of Vienna. The annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany in 1938 created intolerable conditions for the many Austrian Jews, most of whom were Viennese.
The newer usage refers to Americans of English/British origin. Anglo-conformity Anglo-conformity is a term used by scholars to describe the now outdated notion that immigrants ought to shed their distinct cultures and adopt not only the English language in their home but also to conform to whatever general community standards that prevailed where they settled. This view is a general tenet of nativism. One popular expression of it is found in a nowforgotten song popular in 1915, "Don't Bite the Hand That's Feeding You," which compared immigrants to If you don't like your Uncle Sammy, Then go back to your home o'er the sea, To the land from where you came, Whatever be its name, But don't be ungrateful to me!