By J. V. Iribarne

The thermodynamics of the ambience is the topic of severai chapters in such a lot textbooks on dynamic meteorology, yet there is not any paintings in English to provide the topic a particular and extra large therapy. In writing the current textbook, now we have attempted to fiII this particularly impressive hole within the literature concerning atmospheric sciences. Our target has been to supply scholars of meteorology with a booklet that may play a task just like the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. this suggests a prior wisdom of basic thermodynamics, equivalent to scholars collect quite often physics classes; accordingly, even if the elemental rules are reviewed (in the urst 4 chapters), they're in simple terms in brief mentioned, and emphasis is laid on these themes that wilI be helpful in later chapters, via their program to atmospheric difficulties. No try has been made to introduce the thermodynamics ofirreversible strategies; nevertheless, attention of heterogeneous and open homogeneous platforms allows a rigorous formula of the thermodynamic features of c10uds (exclusive of any attention of microphysical results) and a greater realizing of the approx imations frequently implicit in functional applications.

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22 ATMOSPHERIC THERMODYNAMICS or their integral expressions (23) AU=Q-IpdV AH = Q + Iv (24) dp. The same expressions will be used with smallietters when referred to the unit mass: du = oq - P dv (25) etc. We must remark that Equation (20), and therefore Equations (21) and (22), assume the process to be quasi-static, if P is to stand for the internal pressure of the system. Otherwise, P is the extern al pressure exerted on the system. 4. Expressions of Q. Heat Capacities Let us consider tirst a homogeneous system of constant composition.

Gibbs function has also been known as thefree energy and represented by F. Thus Helmholtz function is sometimes referred to as Helmholtz free energy, in order to avoid ambiguity. THE SECOND PRINCIPLE OF THERMODYNAMICS 41 and introducing it in Equation (20), and by differentiating G and introducing it in Equation (21), two new joint expressions of both thermodynamic principles are obtained: dF ~ - S dT - p dV (24) (25) dG~-SdT+Vdp. We shall make use mainly of the last one. In all four Equations (20), (21), (24), (25), the inequality sign holds for irreversible processes (p is then the extern al pressure exerted upon the system, and T the temperature of the heat sources in contact with it) and the equality sign for reversible processes.

In other words, Aad has the same value for every (adiabatic) process causing the same change, and it depends only on the initial and final states ofthe system. Aad can therefore be expressed by the difference in a state function: (1) and this function U is called the internal energy of the system. It follows that for a cycle, Aad = 0, and that for an infinitesimal process bA ad = d U is an exact differential, which can be expressed by dU = (au) ax y dX + (au) ay x (2) dY as a function of whatever independent variables X, Y are chosen.