By John Falconer, Elizabeth Moore, Luca Invernizzi Tettoni, Alfred Birnbaum

The Burmese culture of structure, artwork and layout is historical, varied and beautifully wealthy. a mirrored image of a civilization unbreached through eu powers for 3,000 years and encouraged by means of China to the north and India to the West, Burmese layout is interwoven with non secular, spiritual and political messages. it's only now that this practice is coming to be preferred by means of Western scholars of structure and design.Burmese layout and structure will deepen and improve that appreciation, for this can be the 1st booklet to catch the complete span of Burmese layout, from arts and crafts to structure, from the enormous pagodas of Bagan to the architectural background of latest Rangoon. protecting either spiritual and secular layout, this ebook deals specialist insights supplied via top archaeological specialists during this box. With 500 full-color images, this can be a significant work-and essential for severe connoisseurs of structure, layout or Burma itself.

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However, throughout the country, the forms remain much the same as in the past. The most frequently seen is the stupa or zeidi (the "golden pagodas" of Myanmar). There are many types, all based on the same combination of elements. The anda or bell-likened to the thabeik or begging bowl carried by Buddhist monks-of the pagoda rests on square and octagonal terraces. Above the bell are a series of shapes: rings, petals of the lotus flower, the hngetpyaw-bu or banana bud. Some people say the form of the banana bud comes from the shape made by two hands held in prayer although there is no proof for this.

The massacre of the Negrais factory virtually ended British contacts until the early 19th century. Then the activities of an increasingly expansionist and aggressive Burma under King Bagyidaw led to war with Britain in 1824-26, resulting in the annexation of the southern coastal provinces of Arakan (Rakhine) and Tennasserim (Taninthayi). A second war in 1852 saw the loss of the whole of Pegu and Lower Burma to Britain. With these territorial gains and the rapid expansion of Rangoon as a port in the following decades, British commercial interests were soon looking longingly to the riches of Upper Burma (as the old Kingdom of Ava was known to Europeans).

The script on a terracotta seal from the site has been used to date it to the 2nd century. Other Pyu buildings present more difficult attributions in their form and use. For example, at Hal in (9-11th century, north of Mandalay), there are unusual remains of square brick structures with a central stupa. Both inhumation burials and cremation urns have been recovered around the shrines. The heads of two recently excavated skeletons pointed to the southeast, with urns grouped around their heads. The southeast is generally the direction of the house spirit or ein-saung nat, and south the location of village spirit shrines.

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