By Markus Graf, Diego Barrettino, Henry P. Baltes, Andreas Hierlemann

The e-book "CMOS Hotplate Chemical Microsensors" presents a accomplished therapy of the interdisciplinary box of CMOS technology-based chemical microsensor platforms, and, particularly, of microhotplate-based structures. The publication is, at the one hand, precise at scientists and engineers which are attracted to getting first insights within the box of microhotplates and comparable chemical sensing, considering all valuable primary wisdom is integrated. nevertheless, it additionally addresses specialists within the box because it presents specific details on all very important matters with regards to figuring out microhotplates and, in particular, microhotplate-based chemical sensors in CMOS technology.A huge variety of microhotplate realizations and integrated-sensor-system implementations illustrate the present state-of-the-art and, even as, supply an influence of the long run strength of chemical microsensors in CMOS know-how. due to the fact that microsensors produce "microsignals", sensor miniaturization with no sensor integration is, in lots of circumstances, at risk of failure. This booklet may help to bare the advantages of utilizing built-in electronics and CMOS-technology for constructing microhotplates and the corresponding chemical microsensor structures and, particularly, the benefits that outcome from figuring out monolithically built-in sensor structures comprising transducers and linked circuitry on a unmarried chip.

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Due to the missing heat spreader, significant temperature gradients across the heated area are to be expected. Therefore, an array of temperature sensors was integrated on the hotplate to assess the temperature distribution. The temperature sensors (nominal resistance of  kΩ) were placed in characteristic locations on the microhotplate, which were numbered T to T . The measurement results have been compared to the corresponding values of a FEM simulation in Sect. 2, and the validity of the model for simulations of the temperature distribution has been established.

Only single-chip processing is possible. Therefore, the additional annealing heater was never used so far. The annealing temperature range can be extended up to  C by using the hotplate annealing heater. 3 Physical Microhotplate Characterization For thermal characterization and temperature sensor calibration a microhotplate was fabricated, which is identical to that on the monolithic sensor chips, but does not include any electronics. The functional elements of this microhotplate are connected to bonding pads and not wired up to any circuitry, so that the direct access to the hotplate components without electronics interference is ensured.

The thermal time constant was calculated from these data with a curve fit using Eq. 29). As already mentioned in the context of Eq. 37), self-heating occurs with a resistive heater, so that the thermal time constant has to be determined during the cooling cycle. 4 Calibration of the Temperature Sensors The discrete microhotplates were packaged and bonded in a DIL-28 package for temperature sensor calibration. A Pt-100-temperature sensor was attached to the chip package in close vicinity to the sensors.

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