By Heidi Johansen-Berg, Timothy E.J. Behrens

Diffusion MRI is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategy that produces in vivo photographs of organic tissues weighted with the neighborhood microstructural features of water diffusion, delivering a good technique of visualizing useful connectivities within the frightened procedure. This e-book is the 1st finished reference selling the knowledge of this quickly evolving and strong expertise and supplying the basic instruction manual for designing, studying or analyzing diffusion MR experiments.
The publication provides diffusion imaging within the context of well-established, classical experimental ideas, in order that readers should be in a position to examine the scope and boundaries of the hot imaging know-how with appreciate to recommendations on hand formerly.
All chapters are written by way of best foreign specialists and canopy method, validation of the imaging know-how, software of diffusion imaging to the examine of edition and improvement of standard mind anatomy, and disruption to the white topic in neurological ailment or psychiatric ailment.

. Discusses all facets of a selection MRI examine from acquisition, via research, to interpretation, supplying a necessary reference textual content for scientists designing or analyzing diffusion MR experiments
. sensible recommendation on operating an experiment
. complete colour all through

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Extra info for Diffusion MRI: From quantitative measurement to in-vivo neuroanatomy

Sample text

7. 7, the diffusion gradients can be applied along any direction. 7 that when a refocusing rf pulse is placed between the two gradient lobes, it reverses the phase induced by the first gradient (as well as phases from Excitation rf pulse all applied gradients, and off-resonance); thus, both diffusion-weighting gradients have the same polarity. In general, the diffusion coefficient for any direction is estimated by collecting two sets of data; one, S0, with the diffusion-weighting gradient amplitude set to 0, such that b  0, and the second, SD, with a non-zero diffusion-weighting gradient in the desired direction of measurement.

Refocusing remains quite effective, even for rotation angles that deviate far from 180 degrees, as long as the rotating rf pulse is applied parallel to the rotating magnetization (recall they must rotate at the same frequency). This is called the CPMG method, or CPMG condition (named after the investigators Carr, Purcell, Meiboom, and Gill). The CPMG method works so well that many refocusing designs purposefully use rf pulses with flip angles much smaller than 180 degrees. One advantage of smaller flip angles is that refocusing pulses have two other effects which scale, at least in part, with the square of the flip angle (specifically with rf power).

E. slice thickness. It generally takes tissues 3–4 seconds for Mz to recover in brain tissue (T1 is on the order of a second or two). Sometimes, when collecting a large number of thin slices, TR can be 10 seconds or more in order to interleaf all the slices together. In this case, the scan is very inefficient from an SNR perspective, since signal stops increasing after the first few seconds. Making the slices thicker reduces the number of slices required to cover a desired object, thus allowing the TR to be lowered, increasing SNR efficiency.

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