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Food lakes are prepared by precipitating dyes on alumina. , plastic films, lacquers and inks, from which soluble dyes would leach out. Listing of a food dye does not necessarily imply listing the corresponding lake. Polymeric food dyes have been developed that cannot pass the gastrointestinal wall and are excreted virtually intact in the feces. Toxicity and efficacy tests must be completed before FDA approval is granted to these dyes. In recent years, plant tissue culture techniques have been applied to the production of food colors.

Such a survey of PLP-dependent enzymes illustrates the important point that one cofactor can be used for different kinds of transformations. The reactions described all go through a common aldimine intermediate, with the ultimate course of the reaction being controlled by the appropriate substrate specificity and positioning of amino acid side chains. This flexibility allows nature to expand its chemical repertoire with a relatively small set of cofactors. There are other organic cofactors such as thiamine pyrophosphate and biotin that participate in carbon– carbon bond formation and cleavage, cofactors that participate in reduction/oxidation, or redox, reactions such as nicotinamide and flavin moieties discussed in some of the earlier examples, and still others that are metal based such as vitamin B12 and porphyrin, which is our next topic.

0, which is the pH range of most foods, but they are sensitive to heat, oxidation, and light. F. Miscellaneous Natural Food Colors There are several hundred additional natural pigments that are not as widely represented in foods as the previously discussed coloring substances. Among them are the quinones and xanthones, which are yellow pigments. An example of a quinone is juglone, which is present in walnuts and pecans. Mangiferin, a representative of xanthones, is found in mangoes. Tannins include two types of pale yellow to light brown compounds, characterized by their property to convert animal hides to leather.

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