By Kenneth T. Jackson, Lisa Keller, Nancy Flood

Covering an exhaustive variety of data approximately ny, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx, and Staten Island, the 1st variation of The Encyclopedia of latest York City was once successful by way of each degree, incomes all over the world acclaim and several other awards for reference excellence, and promoting out its first printing ahead of it used to be formally published.

But a lot has replaced because the quantity first seemed in 1995: the area exchange middle not dominates the skyline, a billionaire businessman became an not going three-term mayor, and concrete regeneration—Chelsea Piers, the excessive Line, DUMBO, Williamsburg, the South Bronx, the decrease East Side—has turn into common. to mirror such innovation and alter, this definitive, one-volume source at the urban has been thoroughly revised and expanded.

The revised variation comprises 800 new entries that support whole the tale of latest York: from Air educate to E-ZPass, from September eleven to public order. the hot fabric comprises broader insurance of topic components formerly underserved in addition to new maps and illustrations. nearly all present entries—spanning structure, politics, enterprise, activities, the humanities, and more—have been up to date to mirror the influence of the earlier decades.

The greater than 5,000 alphabetical entries and seven hundred illustrations of the second one version of The Encyclopedia of recent York Cityconvey the richness and variety of its topic in nice breadth and aspect, and may proceed to function an necessary instrument for everybody who has even a passing curiosity within the American metropolis.

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Raymond Jones, known as the “Harlem Fox,” became the first black leader of Tammany Hall, and Kenneth Brown became the first black elected to the state assembly from Queens. In the same year Milton Galamison and the City-Wide Committee for Integrated Schools led two student boycotts of classes to demand the removal of the president of the Board of Education, and Jesse Gray orga nized rent strikes in Harlem by black tenants to obtain affordable housing. The killing of a black youth by a white police lieutenant in the summer of 1964 led to a riot in Harlem that lasted three nights; one person was killed, 141 were seriously injured (including 48 police officers), and 519 were arrested.

Many middle-class blacks opened restaurants, the most successful of which were Thomas Van Renesselaer’s Eating House on Wall Street, Katy Ferguson’s Pastry Shop on Thompson Street, Downing’s Oyster House on Broad Street, and Cato’s in lower Manhattan. The all-male African Clarkson Association, formed in 1829, was both a literary society and a benevolent orga nization. Its members paid monthly dues of 25 cents and could receive financial help when they or their families fell ill. There were more than one dozen black literary and book-lending societies in Manhattan and Brooklyn by the mid-nineteenth century.

Although Manhattan’s first permanent European settlers sowed wheat, oats, and rye in the spring of 1626, over the next two decades they intermittently relied on Indian stores for a portion of their subsistence. In 1630 the Dutch West India Company encouraged agriculture by providing settlers with shelter, livestock, seed, and tools. The company also recognized slavery, which was to remain legal for the next two centuries. As elsewhere along the eastern coast of North America, seventeenth-century agriculture in New Amsterdam borrowed from the crops and methods of both the New and Old 15 Worlds.

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