By Peter Harris, Ben Reilly, Mark Anstey

This instruction manual presents functional recommendation on how one can dealer peace in international locations rising from deep-rooted clash and descriptions suggestions negotiators can draw upon whilst attempting to construct or rebuild democracy. The instruction manual presents a radical evaluate of democratic levers -- reminiscent of power-sharing formulation, questions of federalism and autonomy, strategies for minority rights, constitutional safeguards and so on. It analyses real negotiated settlements from areas like Bosnia, Fiji, Northern eire, Guatemala, Sri Lanka, Papua New Guinea and South Africa. Written by way of foreign specialists and skilled negotiators, the instruction manual is designed as a short reference instrument containing various case experiences, factsheets and functional examples.

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Source: SIPRI Yearbook 1997: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press for SIPRI. FACTSHEET 1 [P. 14] THE NEW STATE OF CONFLICT: SOME FACTS Rising Rate of Civilian Casualties Cost of United Nations Peace-keeping Operations 1986–1997 The percentage of civilian casualties soared from five per cent during WWI to 80 per cent during the 1990s. The cost of peace-keeping has risen from less than $US 200 million to over $US 1 billion in the last ten years. Source: Peace-keeping Financing Division /DPKO/UNHQ.

Since World War Two, cheap, mass-produced, small-calibre weapons have killed far more people than the heavier more traditional battlefield weaponry. Civilian casualties. During World War One, five per cent of casualties were civilian; by World War Two the figure had risen to 50 per cent. In the 1990s, the proportion of civilian casualties has soared to 80 per cent. Refugees. By 1992, there were about 17 million refugees, and a further 20 million people who were internally displaced. Examples. Deep-rooted conflicts include Russia (Chechnya), Northern Ireland, Iran and Iraq (with the Kurds), Israel, Afghanistan, Bangladesh (Chittagong Hill Tribes), Indonesia (East Timor), Sri Lanka, Burma, Algeria and elsewhere.

Such issues are amenable to manipulation by leaders and politicians, who may use them to mobilize communities on ethnic or other fault-lines. It Two recurrent problems make it extraordinarily difficult to manage identity-related disputes: their indivisibility and their tendency towards escalation. 6 Analysing Conflict is extremely hard to break these cyclical patterns and de-escalate back to the original issues. 3 Leadership Managing deep-rooted conflicts requires far-sighted leadership. Just as many conflicts are exacerbated by ethnic entrepreneurs who fan the flames of group animosities, so to bring conflicts to a sustainable settlement requires leaders who are prepared to do just that – lead.

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