By Alessandra Piontelli
In the later levels of gestation, fetal services endure expanding switch and improvement, getting ready the fetus for the transition to its postnatal atmosphere. quick maturation is witnessed in respiring, swallowing, sensory services, sleep, and plenty of different methods, with corresponding behavioral adjustments. by way of 35 to forty weeks of gestation, fetuses are able to residing ex utero with no help, however it is more and more liked that even babies born at among 35 and 36 weeks can endure long term results. This publication, which enhances the author’s earlier quantity on improvement of ordinary fetal events throughout the first 25 weeks of gestation, discusses intimately the entire diversity of behavioral phenomena saw in the course of the ultimate 15 weeks of gestation, with cautious research in their mutual relationships. A key characteristic is the exceptional photographic fabric, tricky to acquire at this overdue level, and the instructive graphs which are additionally integrated. the knowledge supplied will alert clinicians to deviations from the norm and to physiologic phenomena which could flip pathologic in babies born prematurely.
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Extra info for Development of Normal Fetal Movements: The Last 15 Weeks of Gestation
Fetal lung development is dependent on complicated interactions of several endocrine, metabolic and mechanical factors especially consisting 35 of breathing movements. During fetal life, the future airways of the lung are liquid filled, and gas exchange occurs across the placenta. At birth the lung must rapidly assume a role that it has not previously performed, and in most cases the transition to an air-breathing existence is rapid and uneventful. The lungs must be structurally and biochemically mature so as to inflate with ease and not collapse during expiration [8, 9].
Till term, however, the alternation between breathing and swallowing is rare. Most bouts of breathing continue to emerge quite independently from swallowing. Clearly the neonate must be prepared to feed without interrupting breathing save for a few seconds during which the glottis closes to impede choking. Breathing, however, will become continuous and sustained quite independently from feeding. However, the neonate has an added protection of the airways. At rest the soft palate and the epiglottis are in contact, providing an additional valve at the back of the oral cavity.
The formation of the pulmonary alveoli begins prenatally, but most (80 %) are formed after birth, the majority being developed by 18 months of age. 1 Lung Development and Possible Functions of Fetal Breathing Movements fully mature, neonates born at term are quite capable of sustaining aerial respiration. During the saccular phase in the distal lung tissue, the relative amount of cavity space within the sacculi increases dramatically, while the relative amount of connective tissue simultaneously decreases, expanding enormously the surface area where respiratory gas exchanges can take place providing effectively for the requirements of the neonate [5, 6].